• patricia tonui

The Mozambique civil war

The Mozambican Civil War was a 15-year war that lasted from May 30, 1977, to October 4, 1992, in Mozambique, a country in southern Africa. Despite the fact that the fight was purportedly an internal civil war, it was actually a proxy war between the Soviet Union, who supported the Mozambican government, and the US, which supported the insurgents. Two years after Mozambique declared independence from Portugal, the conflict broke out. The major belligerents were President Samora Machel's Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), which controlled the central government, and André Matsangaissa's Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO).


During a 15-year warfare, one million people were estimated to have perished in a country with a population of 14 million in 1990.

The war began in 1976, when forces from Rhodesia, a white minority-controlled country, entered Mozambique to fight the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), which had bases in Mozambican territory. André Matsangaissa, an ex-FRELIMO official who had been detained and imprisoned, was freed by Rhodesian troops. Matsangaissa joined RENAMO, which was founded in 1975 to oppose FRELIMO, and progressed fast through the ranks to become its leader. After an attempted attack on a Mozambican provincial center in 1979, Matsangaissa was slain.


During much of the civil war in Mozambique, FRELIMO was stronger in the cities and larger towns, while RENAMO operated primarily in the countryside. Even after the white minority authority in Rhodesia was ousted by Robert Mugabe, who renamed the country Zimbabwe, it continued to battle the Mozambique central government. Mugabe and his administration now support FRELIMO, while Kenya and South Africa back RENAMO.


RENAMO conducted out raids on towns and smaller cities on a regular basis. Following mass abductions, the army enlisted people, including young soldiers, to supplement its ranks. Villagers were forced to produce food, carry supplies and munitions, while village women were compelled to work as sex slaves under RENAMO's Gamdira system.


As the battle progressed, both sides began to employ cruel techniques, such as land mines. RENAMO, on the other hand, aimed to stifle the economy and undermine public trust in the government by mining roads, schools, and health centers.


The battle lasted until the 1980s, with FRELIMO losing control of most of Mozambique's land but maintaining authority in the cities. The Soviet Union, France, and the United Kingdom backed FRELIMO, while RENAMO received backing from South Africa, Kenya, and the United States under the table.

Mozambique soldiers

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President Samora Machel died in a plane crash near the South African border on October 19, 1986. The cause of the jet accident was unknown, as was whether RENAMO or perhaps South Africa was to blame. Hundreds of thousands of Mozambicans died as a result of the nine-year battle, which was caused by both FRELIMO and RENAMO. Joaquim Alberto Chissano succeeded Machel as president of the country.


President Samora Machel died in a plane crash near the South African border on October 19, 1986. The cause of the jet accident was unknown, as was whether RENAMO or perhaps South Africa was to blame. Hundreds of thousands of Mozambicans died as a result of the nine-year battle, which was caused by both FRELIMO and RENAMO. Joaquim Alberto Chissano succeeded Machel as president of the country.


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