• patricia tonui

Second Sudanese civil war

The Second Sudanese Civil War was a 22-year battle between the Khartoum-based central government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) (SPLA). The conflict began in southern Sudan and quickly extended to the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile region. This struggle claimed the lives of two million people, yet it also resulted in the independence of South Sudan in 2011.


The Addis Ababa Agreement, which concluded the first Sudan Civil War in 1972, was repeatedly violated. President Gaafar Nimeiry wanted to seize control of the newly found oil resources on the border between north and south Sudan in 1978. President Nimeiry broke the deal in 1983 when he imposed Sharia Law over the country and abolished the predominantly Christian Southern Sudan Autonomous Region. The majority of South Sudanese citizens, as well as those non-Muslims living in the north, are now subject to Sharia Law.


South Sudanese rebels founded the Southern Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), led by John Garang, to oppose the Khartoum-based central government. Child soldiers were recruited by both sides, though the SPLA was more likely to utilize them than in the first conflict. A coup took place in April 1985. Nimeri was deposed, and the new administration reversed Nimeri's 1983 edict and made other concessions aimed at bringing the north and south together. The new Khartoum administration, led by Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi, and the SPLA, led by Col. John Garang, met for the first time in negotiations in May 1986.

sudan administrative divisions 2000


Simultaneously, the SPLA and other Sudanese political parties convened in Ethiopia, where they drafted the Koka Dam proclamation, which called for the abolition of Islamic rule and the convocation of a national constitutional conference.


In 1988, the SPLA and Sudan's Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) agreed on a peace proposal that included a cease-fire and the repeal of military pacts with Egypt and Libya, who had provided arms to the Khartoum government. The Sadiq al-Mahdi government adopted the peace plan in February 1989, but warfare continued until the 1990s, with both sides committing atrocities and violating human rights.


Guerrilla forces of the Sudan People's Liberation Army, Second Sudanese Civil War

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The Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) struck an agreement known as the Machakos Protocol in July 2002, called after the Kenyan town where peace discussions were held. The talks proceeded into the next year, and on January 9, 2005, the Sudanese government and the SPLA signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, bringing the civil war to an end. In 2011, six years after the war ended, the accord provided for the formation of South Sudan.






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